Greek Aristoteles (born 384 bce, Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece—died
322, Chalcis, Euboea)
ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual
figures of Western history.
He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that
became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism
and medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the intellectual revolutions
of the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment, Aristotelian
concepts remained embedded in Western thinking.
intellectual range was vast, covering most of the sciences and many
of the arts, including biology, botany, chemistry, ethics, history,
logic, metaphysics, rhetoric, philosophy of mind, philosophy of
science, physics, poetics, political theory, psychology, and zoology.
was the founder of formal logic, devising for it a finished system
that for centuries was regarded as the sum of the discipline; and
he pioneered the study of zoology, both observational and theoretical,
in which some of his work remained unsurpassed until the 19th century.
he is, of course, most outstanding as a philosopher. His writings
in ethics and political theory as well as in metaphysics and the
philosophy of science continue to be studied, and his work remains
a powerful current in contemporary philosophical debate.
marble portrait bust,
Roman copy (2nd century bc) of a Greek original