
Archemedes
Born c. 287 BC, Syracuse, Sicily, Magna Graecia
Died c. 212 BC (aged around 75), Syracuse, Sicily, Magna Graecia
Fields: Mathematics Physics Engineering Astronomy Invention
Known for: Archimedes' principle Archimedes' screw hydrostatics
levers infinitesimals Neuseis constructions
Archimedes
was a Greek mathematician, philosopher and inventor who wrote
important works on geometry, arithmetic and mechanics.
Archimedes
was born in Syracuse on the eastern coast of Sicily and educated
in Alexandria in Egypt. He then returned to Syracuse, where
he spent most of the rest of his life, devoting his time to
research and experimentation in many fields.
In
mechanics he defined the principle of the lever and is credited
with inventing the compound pulley and the hydraulic screw
for raising water from a lower to higher level. He is most
famous for discovering the law of hydrostatics, sometimes
known as 'Archimedes' principle', stating that a body immersed
in fluid loses weight equal to the weight of the amount of
fluid it displaces. Archimedes is supposed to have made this
discovery when stepping into his bath, causing him to exclaim
'Eureka!'
During
the Roman conquest of Sicily in 214 BC Archimedes worked for
the state, and several of his mechanical devices were employed
in the defence of Syracuse. Among the war machines attributed
to him are the catapult and  perhaps legendary  a mirror
system for focusing the sun's rays on the invaders' boats
and igniting them. After Syracuse was captured, Archimedes
was killed by a Roman soldier. It is said that he was so absorbed
in his calculations he told his killer not to disturb him.
BBC 
Archimedes
by the Italian artist Giuseppe Nogari
(16991766) 